The Risø research facility is also becoming a major employer, extending interest in sustainable energy to the clean technology sphere.
In addition to its internationally recognized tourist attractions and its annual rock festival, Roskilde is popular with shoppers thanks to its two centrally located pedestrian streets complete with restaurants, cafés, and a variety of shops.
The city is home to the FC Roskilde football club which play in the Danish 1st Division, the Roskilde Vikings RK rugby club, and the rowing club, Roskilde Roklub.
The Reformation brought Roskilde's development to an abrupt stop.
While the cathedral continued to be the preferred location for the entombment of the Danish monarchs, most of the other religious institutions disappeared.
Roskilde has a long history, dating from the pre-Christian Viking Age.
Its UNESCO-listed Gothic cathedral, now housing 39 tombs of the Danish monarchs, was completed in 1275, becoming a focus of religious influence until the Reformation.
The Sankt Hans psychiatric hospital serves the Capital Region with specialized facilities for forensic psychiatry.
The cathedral and the Viking Ship Museum, which contains the well-preserved remains of five 11th-century ships, attract more than 100,000 visitors annually.
According to Adam of Bremen and the Saxo Grammaticus, Roskilde was founded in the 980s by Harald Bluetooth.
On high ground above the harbour, he built a wooden church consecrated to the Holy Trinity as well as a royal residence nearby.
Roskilde, which developed as the hub of the Viking land and sea trade routes over a thousand years ago, is one of Denmark's oldest cities.