TLS is a proposed Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) standard, first defined in 1999 and updated in RFC 5246 (August 2008) and RFC 6176 (March 2011).
It builds on the earlier SSL specifications (1994, 1995, 1996) developed by Netscape Communications Client-server applications use the TLS protocol to communicate across a network in a way designed to prevent eavesdropping and tampering.
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which would imply that it is above the transport layer.
It serves encryption to higher layers, which is normally the function of the presentation layer.
As a consequence of choosing X.509 certificates, certificate authorities and a public key infrastructure are necessary to verify the relation between a certificate and its owner, as well as to generate, sign, and administer the validity of certificates.
While this can be more convenient than verifying the identities via a web of trust, the 2013 mass surveillance disclosures made it more widely known that certificate authorities are a weak point from a security standpoint, allowing man-in-the-middle attacks (MITM).
Another mechanism is for the client to make a protocol-specific request to the server to switch the connection to TLS; for example, by making a STARTTLS request when using the mail and news protocols.
Once the client and server have agreed to use TLS, they negotiate a stateful connection by using a handshaking procedure.If any one of the above steps fails, then the TLS handshake fails and the connection is not created.TLS and SSL do not fit neatly into any single layer of the OSI model or the TCP/IP model.Since applications can communicate either with or without TLS (or SSL), it is necessary for the client to indicate to the server the setup of a TLS connection.One of the main ways of achieving this is to use a different port number for TLS connections, for example port 443 for HTTPS.TLS typically relies on a set of trusted third-party certificate authorities to establish the authenticity of certificates.